MIDDLE & VALLEY TOWNS OF WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

THE WESTERN NC PRAYER TEAM (alphabetical order) 
Click on their names below to see what they wrote in their debriefing time at the end of this trip

  • Jim Barefoot
    • British & Qualla Cherokee
    • Retired 50-year Missionary to Eskimos
    • Robbinsville (Stecoah), North Carolina
  • Gene Brooks
    • Descendant of Upcountry SC settlers
    • Mission Carolina
    • Clinton, South Carolina
  • Nancy Cheek
    • Christians Walk Together
    • Cobb, Georgia
  • Bob Ensign
    • Cherokee & Choctaw Nations
    • As Eagles Wings
    • Greensboro, North Carolina
  • Linda Fulmer
    • Descendant of SC Royal Governor & Lowcountry planters
    • Research Division, Intl Reconciliation Coalition
    • Lindale, Texas
  • Everett & Mary Hamilton
    • Secret Place Associated Network
    • Lakeland, Florida
  • Kevin LaPlante
    • French Canadian/ Apache
    • Wilkesboro, North Carolina
  • Fern Noble
    • Cree Nation
    • International Reconciliation Coalition
    • Oxnard, California
  • Henry Pennington
    • Cherokee
    • South Carolina Department of Transportation
    • Saluda, South Carolina
  • Christy Lynn Poe
  • Henry Redding
    • Cherokee Nation & Muscogee Confederacy
    • Charlotte, North Carolina
  • Edd Stovall
    • Crescent Resources
    • Hosanna Fellowship
    • West Union, South Carolina
  • Ada Winn
    • Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma
    • Morningstar Evangelistic Center Intercessors
    • Tulsa, Oklahoma
  • Randy Woodley
    • United Keetoowah Band, Cherokees
    • Eagle’s Wings Ministry
    • Carson City, Nevada

Day 1 – October 15, 1999

Last night all the team members made it safely in to our little cabin near Franklin, NC.  We are right on the Little Tennessee River, the main thoroughfare of the Middle Cherokees.

Today was a day of briefing and orientation, setting into our hearts the situation spiritually in this area of Western North Carolina and sensing what God is saying.

This morning we met with Tina Evans, associate pastor of Cherokee United Methodist Church in Cherokee.  Pastor Evans prayed for us as a pastor with spiritual authority in the reservation and opened a gate for us to come in to pray.

Then we toured the Cherokee Nation Museum on the reservation.  The worldly sorrow was horrendous there.  The musket that killed Tsali was there as well as an ax with Bob Benge (a bitter Chickamauga Cherokee) used to kill a white family.

Tsali was a Cherokee who according to legend gave up his life and the lives of his sons to Federal authorities so that the Cherokee people could have a reservation in NC.

Later we went to the Oconoluftee Indian Village.  We saw their eyes, how they resented white people.  However, we ran into a young preacher (Independent Baptist) who was our tour guide named Danny.  He prayed blessing on us to intercede in the Cherokee homeland.  We in turn prayed blessings for him.

Next it was to the Harrah’s Cherokee Casino where we met Steve, the senior pastor of Cherokee Methodist Church and his staff for lunch and prayerwalking the casino.  Their eyes–they were like zombies in there. One elderly lady was pushing an oxygen tank and playing poker.  Many had cards inserted into the machines with cords hooked from the credit cards to their shirts like umbilical cords.  We really had great prayer there, as we walked around individually and by twos throughout the casino.

From there we drove back to the cabin for orientation and briefing which lasted, with breaks, until 9:30pm.  Tired already!

Tomorrow we begin our first day of real prayer work.  We are meeting the great-great-grandaughter of William Thomas, the white chief of the Cherokee who succeeded in securing the existence of a reservation for the Eastern Band of Cherokee and pray with her and others.


Day 2 – October 16, 1999

This morning the team met, took communion using the Episcopal service from the Prayer Book, and headed to the Qualla Reservation to meet Lisa McClelland of Canton, NC, the great-great-great granddaughter of William Thomas.

William Thomas was a white man adopted by the last Cherokee chief before Removal named Yonagusta.  Yonagusta believed that a white man could deal in a better way for the benefit of the Cherokees with the state and federal authorities than a Cherokee chief could.

Therefore, William Thomas, a white man, became chief of the Cherokee people.  His controversial life and eventual insanity discolored somewhat his intense love of the Cherokee.  William Thomas succeeded in negotiating the establishment of the Qualla Boundary, the Reservation for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians who escaped removal.

What a privilege to pray with his great-great-great granddaughter!  Lisa and her husband had recently moved to Canton from Charlotte where she had been a member at Morningstar.

We went onto the Blue Ridge Parkway and prayed over the Reservation powerfully from a scenic overlook near Bigwitch Gap, followed by more awesome prayer at Soco Gap, the northeastern corner point of the Qualla Boundary.  The boundary marker there we believe was Masonically dedicated, and without any real effort to discern the way the Lord wanted us to pray, Lisa received a Scripture about annulling the covenant with death from Isaiah and began undoing the Masonic dedication 
of that cornerstone at the corner of the Qualla Boundary.  It was awesome.

Next we went into Cherokee down #19.  After lunch, we gathered to pray at Echota Mission, now the site of Cherokee Methodist Church.  We had deep intercession over the boarding schools and the 19th century educational system which forced Cherokees to become white, speak only English, and become “civilized” in order to become Christian.

Afterwards, the team moved down to pray at the site is Tsiskwaki on #19 just below downtown Cherokee, now the site of a sewage treatment facility on the Oconoluftee River.  Randy Woodley led in prayer asking the Lord to restore to the Cherokee the meaning of Tsiskwaki, which is “birthing place,” and Ada Winn, our Beloved Woman, led us in throwing salt into the waters (2 Kings 2) for healing of the waters and the peoples.

From there we moved to Stecoah Old Fields, the home of William Thomas, and a large town which was burned four times — by the British in 1761, by the Americans in 1776, by John Sevier in 1781, and then by an arsonist in 1804.  Here the Lord led us in praying along the lines of a kinsman redeemer, since the Lord had made William Thomas, a white man, a kinsman redeemer for the Cherokee.  Just as Boaz dropped barley into the shawl of Ruth as a sign of her redemption, Lisa McClelland, descendant of Thomas,  dropped wheat into the jacket of Ada Winn, Cherokee, as a sign there at Stecoah Old Fields of the redemption of the Cherokee People.

Then on to Kituhwa, one of the most important sites in all of Cherokee history.  It was on this spot, just upriver from Bryson City, NC, where the Cherokee culture originated.  Here, they say, the Creator, according to them named Yowah, visited them and gave them a moral, ethical, and religious code at their mound.  Similar to the Jews with Mt. Sinai, and as Paul wrote in Romans, they had received a law unto themselves for moral conduct from the Creator.  There we read Hebrews 12 prophetically over the land, declaring that while Mt. Sinai was good, that a new mountain had come, Mt. Zion, and a new mediator, the Creator’s son, Jesus Christ.

Then we celebrated Christ’s redemption of the Cherokee people with a friendship dance led by Randy Woodley, as we sang a song in Cherokee, “Father, we want Jesus.”

In the evening those of us with energy left enjoyed some mountain music on the square in Franklin.


Day 3 – October 17, 1999

The team left after breakfast together from our beautiful spot on the Little Tennessee River to head over the mountain to Cherokee, NC, to minister at the Cherokee Methodist Church.

The fall colors and the dissipating fog and mist were incredible in these Great Blue Hills of God, as the Cherokee call them.

At the morning service, Ada Winn (Western Band Cherokee), Fern Noble (Cree), Henry Redding (Cherokee), and Randy Woodley (United Ketoowah Band, Cherokee) helped lead the service along with Edd Stovall, Christy Lynn Poe, Bob Ensign, and Gene Brooks.

Randy was in regalia and had the sermon in dance to a taped presentation of the Gospel which he had beautifully choreographed.   The pastor preached on reconciliation.

When he opened the altars, 3/4 of the congregation made its way forward to commit themselves to a life of reconciliation.

After lunch our team went to the Qualla Wesleyan Chapel just outside the reservation which Pastor Jim Barefoot (Snowbird Cherokee/ British) planted.  The chapel has been doing poorly, and Pastor Barefoot has been offered the church again.  However, with his voice gone due to throat cancer a few years ago, he does not feel adequate to preach and teach. One of our own is praying about coming to pastor this church.  We went there to pray, and the Lord moved powerfully for us to deal with the half breeds vs. the full bloods issue and divisions led by Kevin LaPlante.  Fern Noble confessed in prayer to hating her Scot 
great grandfather, and she thanked God for her Scot heritage.

After a visit to a Native American bookstore in Cherokee, the team returned to our hideaway cabin for a wonderful meal of soup together cooked by Linda Fulmer.  Then Everett Hamilton played George Otis, Jr’s TRANSFORMATIONS video for the team in order to fuel our vision and prayers for the long week to come.


Day 4 – October 18, 1999

This morning the team met Rev. Tina Evans in Bryson City and headed to the Nantahala Gorge to pray at the site of Nundayeli (Nantahala) town (located at the Nantahala Outdoor Center), burned by Andrew Williamson in 1776.  We prayed over deep issues of the Cherokees hiding in refuge and being raped and killed in that place, everything lost.  (The word Cherokee is a derogatory Choctaw term meaning, “cave dwellers”).  Our team called forth the Cherokee people from their caves.

    “Say to the captives, ‘Come forth,” and to those in darkness, ‘Appear!’ (Isaiah 49:8-9)

We spoke the name Ani Kituhwa over the Cherokee, which literally means, “I am God-given.”  Ani Kituhwa is the Cherokee name for themselves.

Much prayer over native-white issues of trust, repenting of phrases like “The only good Indian is a dead Indian,” and “White man speaks with forked tongue.”  Repentance over continental issues regarding white men taking advantage of native women and the anger among both Native men and women.  We called forth the Cherokee into their destiny as evangelists for the other nations.  We prayed there over three hours straight without stopping.

After lunch we went up the gorge to Ustanali to repent regarding gambling.  On this river many Cherokee would bet everything on canoe races and lose all they owned.  Could this be a root to the gambling issue?

We were so exhausted from prayer that our team could barely think.  We went home for a nap and to prepare for the Feast of Reconciliation/ Propitiation/ Cementation.  It is a four day festival which has not been celebrated since 1835 and is full of redemptive analogies and shadows pointing to the Messiah.  It is a time to cement old friendships, allow the deeds of the past year to wash away and the new to come.  According to Randy Woodley, we are 99.99.99.99% sure we are the first to celebrate this feast since 1835, and even more confident that we are the first ones to do it in Jesus Mighty Name!  It was wonderful as Henry Pennington and Henry Redding exchanged jackets as symbols of friendship.

Afterward, we watched the video of the May 1999 worship service in which Ada Winn spoke at United Assembly of God in Seneca, SC, as we ate a Cherokee meal:  Cherokee cornbread (white cornmeal with pinto beans), cabbage, hominy, and ham.


Day 5 – October 19, 1999
First Day of Reconciliation Feast of Cherokee

Today the team went to the sites of the Cherokee War battle sites of Etchoe Pass.  In 1760, British Colonel Montgomery with 1000 Scot Highlanders based out of New York had come at the request of the 
insolent SC Governor Lyttleton to “humble” the Cherokees.  Montgomery was ambushed in Etchoe Pass south of Franklin, NC, and the Cherokees on the high defiles fired down into the sitting ducks of the kilt-clad Scot Highlanders.  Heavy losses for Montgomery caused him to retreat.  He went back to Charleston and announced that he had defeated the Cherokees and was going home.  (He had already destroyed the Lower Towns in SC). Charleston had a parade for him and sent him home, but the Cherokee raiding continued.

The next year (1761) his lieutenant during the first campaign, Colonel James Grant came with the same Scot army and was ambushed two miles from the first spot.  Grant, having learned from the previous year, ordered his troops to keep marching no matter what.  They made it through the Pass with losses, but the battle was chalked up as a Cherokee defeat.

From there Grant laid waste the Cherokee towns, killed their hogs, cattle, horses, cut down their orchards, killed and scalped the old and infirm, torched the cabins and corn cribs.  Everyone who could be massacred was exterminated.

We prayed at these battle sites.  A rejected people, the Scots, fighting a rejected people the Cherokee — and fighting an English war.  It was very hard going.  We eventually broke through in a small way, but our 
little band of prayer warriors on Middle Creek near the Little Tennessee River were exhausted when it was over after a 2 1/2 prayer battle on a dirt road.

From there we prayed and repented in the afternoon at the sites of Tessuntee, Cullasaja (Sugar Town) on the south side of Franklin on Wayah Road where the Cullasaja and Little Tennessee Rivers come together.  We continued prayer at Ellijay on Ellijay Creek just outside the Cullasaja Gorge.  Then on to a “hidden town” mentioned by one of the 1776 Rutherford campaign soldiers.  A Cherokee, in order to save his own scalp, took the American rebels to this town hidden in the Cullasaja Gorge where the troops were not able to kill any but those who could not climb the rock walls of the gorge and torched the supplies and food.


Day 6 – October 20, 1999
Second Day of the Reconciliation Feast

Today the team went to Snowbird Mountains reservation for the Eastern Band.  We met at Pastor Jim Barefoot’s home for lunch and prayer for several hours, dealing with a spirit of jealousy among Native ministries continentally.  With the 40 days of prayer for Native Americans going and this CPI segment, we are not surprised the enemy is stirring things up.

The Snowbird Cherokees are part of the Eastern Band of Cherokees.  They kept their land through treachery toward their Cherokee brothers and sisters.  When the US Army was, like the Gestapo, rounding up Cherokees, evicting them from their homes, and moving them to concentration camps, 
the Snowbirds made an agreement with the government that if they would help the Army round up the Cherokees around Murphy/ Hayesville/ and Andrews, they could keep their land.  We prayed a lot about Cain/Abel and brother against brother.

We have also had a lot of prayer concerning the releasing the voice of the Cherokee.  In Genesis 4, the Hebrew is more graphic than “Cain killed Abel.”  It is literally, “Cain slit Abel’s throat.”  Abel, ironically, can mean “breath.”  We have been praying and repenting into these issues of betrayal, jealousy, greed, slander, and internecine conflict.

After some deep and very tiring prayer at Pastor Barefoot’s, we headed to pray at the Church of the Lamb, a struggling originally Native American church and to meet two families of Snowbird Cherokees who are believers.

The team is wearing down from the intensity of the atmosphere & the prayer, and we are taking communion every morning for the strength and endurance it provides.  The depth of rejection and hopelessness is overwhelming, and sometimes some of us individuals on the team get a foot caught in one of them.


Day 7 – October 21, 1999
Third Day of the Cherokee Reconciliation Feast

Wow!  What an awesome day of prayer! 
After some incredible insight into Cain & Abel as brother against brother in our morning prayer meeting, our team headed to Nikwasi Mound in downtown Franklin, NC.  Here we had great prayer.

Redemptive analogies are a missiological term denoting items, practices, or stories in a culture which God has placed there to prepare a people for the coming of Jesus Christ’s message.    For instance, among the Jews, God’s people, there was Passover, a perfect picture of Christ coming to “pass over” us when judgment comes if we have the blood of the Lamb on the door posts of our hearts.

Another example would be the Karen people of Myanmar (Burma).  When the great missionary Adoniram Judson arrived as a missionary to the Burmese, he had no idea of a story in Karen culture from their old prophets that one day a white man in black clothes would come to them with a large black book in which they would find the words of God for life forever.

Similarly, Cherokee culture is inundated with redemptive analogies.  One of them was at Nikwasi Mound in Franklin.  The Cherokee called Nikwasi the Holy City because the Creator Himself visited them many centuries ago.  He said His Name was YoWaH (similar to YHWH Yahweh), and He brought to them a flame of Eternal Fire.  He promised that if they would burn this flame eternally in His honor, that He would covenant with the Cherokees that their people would not perish from the earth.  The Cherokees every year put out the fires in their own home hearths, reignited from the Eternal Fire, cleaned their homes top to bottom, went to water (mikveh or baptism) for cleansing of sin from the past year. 
“The fire on the altar must burn continuously; it must not go out” (Leviticus 6:13).

It was easy to pray at Nikwasi, especially with the similar connection to Mission Carolina’s mandates of 24 hour prayer over the Carolinas using the same Scripture.

Next was Joree in the Iotla community north of Franklin.  Joree (where the Macon County Airport is now located), was the city of priests, the discipleship training center where priests learned to tend the Eternal Fire.  These priests went forth from here all over the Nation to for teaching, healing, and ministering.  We found it no coincidence that our team cabin is located in this community, not 1/2 mile from the site of this city.  What a blessing.  Our mission every morning has been to go forth each morning to the Cherokee Settlements with healing and ministry and prayer.

From there our team went to Burningtown, a city of watchmen who stood watch for the Cherokee.  Their town was located another mile or two farther back on Lower Burningtown Road in the Iotla/ Cowee Community of today north of Franklin.  Here Henry Redding asked for and received his Watchman’s anointing for the Cherokee people.

Thence on to Cowee, the capital city of the Middle Towns.  Through a prodigious set of circumstances, our team was allowed to go on private property to pray on the still 3 to 4 story Cowee Mound.  On the very top we found a depression which may have been the fire pit of the old council house which sat on top of the mound.  We sat around in council to legislate in Jesus’ Name.  Pastor Jim Barefoot sat in the place of the Peace Chief.  Randy Woodley sat as the Right Hand Man (Sergeant at Arms).  Henry Redding sat as Priest, and Ada Winn as Beloved Woman. These were the officers in the Cherokee Councils.  The rest of the team sat around in the places of the seven Cherokee clans.  It was incredible.  The sun was getting low in the sky and the colors on the trees in the mountains surrounding us with the silver Little Tennessee River a ribbon below us was out of a storybook.

First Gene Brooks stood as a yonega (white man) and asked forgiveness for burning, raping, destroying Cowee four times and all the other towns of the Middle Settlements.  The Right Hand Man said these deeds were deserving of death, and since only the Beloved Woman could consider this request (since she alone was the person in the tribe who decided what to do in these extraordinary war cases), he passed the decision to her.

Beloved Woman Ada Winn stood and recounted the depredations, sin, wickedness of Yonega (white man).  She told of the pillage, genocide, theft, burning, hate, racism, and ethnic cleansing of Yonega.  Then said ordered the Yonega to stand for sentence to be pronounced on him.  As Yonega stood, the Beloved Woman began weep.  In Beloved Woman tradition (which waved a cape of beautiful green mallard head feathers over victims to signify redemption and forgiveness), Ada waved over Yonega Gene a green jacket which Oklahoma Cherokees had prayed over and sent on this trip saying Ada in prayer they could see Ada at some point waving this jacket as a symbol of healing.  Beloved Woman then declared Yonega redeemed, forgiven, and set free from the bondages of bitterness and hate and unforgiveness of the Cherokee.  The Right Hand Man then took a drum and announced the news, “The white man is forgiven!  He has been redeemed by the blood of the Lamb and the word of our testimony.  Remove all bitterness and unforgiveness and guilt!  The white man has been freed and forgiven!”

Beloved Woman then said, “This yonega will now have a new name.  He has obeyed the word of the Lord to come and pray for healing of the Cherokee Nation in the name of Jesus.  He is breaking down walls.  We always see him breaking down walls for our people.  Therefore, from now on he will be known as ‘Brooks Against the Walls.’  Further, my Cherokee clan is Bird Clan, and with this Bird Clan bolo tie, I adopt you as a son in the Bird Clan.”  Imagine my surprise.  Then the council welcomed the new brother.

Ada was full of surprises, as she also adopted Kevin LaPlante, prophesied over him, and gave him the name “One who listens to the Birds.”  He was visibly shaken and honored.

Next we commissioned Ada Winn as Beloved Woman of the Cherokee Prayer Initiative.  This position of authority gives her the right to speak at all times.  In Cherokee culture, the Beloved Woman was a special war woman recognized for bravery and wisdom.  She alone stood as an intercessor for war victims and by the simple waving of the mallard cape over a victim would completely save the victim.


Day 8 – October 22, 1999
Fourth and final day of the Cherokee Reconciliation Feast

Today our team went to the Tuckaseegee Valley to pray at several sites. We repented for Grant’s Cherokee War burning of the towns of Tanise, Kansaki, and Cullowhee.  At Cullowhee, John Sevier (an American rebel and opportunist) in 1781, attacked the town, killing sixty  elderly and kidnapping forty youths to sell as slaves.

Afterward we drove to the campus of Western Carolina University at Cullowhee where we prayed at the McKee building where an ancient mound of a people culturally different from the Cherokee lived among them or before them.  Bones and skulls found during construction of McKee suggest the town was peopled by a race of pygmies who had tunnels into and under the ceremonial mound — tunnels too small for regularly sized human beings to manage.  Could this dwarf culture be what the Cherokee believe in as the Little People?  Certainly, the Little People were mythologized through children’s stories through the generations and took on a spiritual meaning like leprachauns or trolls.  Demonic forces are always ready and willing to assume roles cast by human beings in myths, it is true, and we must be careful.  However, could the Little People have been a real race of pygmies like the ones in Australia, Philippines, or Central Africa?

Then we drove up the valley to Judaculla Rock (a huge petroglyph) where Randy Woodley (United Keetoowah Band, Cherokee) confessed his feelings of jealousy and hatred and vengeance at this beautiful land lost to the Cherokees.  He took a hatchet and voluntarily laid it down while Fern 
Noble prayed for healing in his heart and counseled that at every time of prayer in places like these have been, she has to lay down the hatchet voluntarily and choose to take no offense for the sake of the 
Kingdom.

From there the team went to Tuckaseegee Town which John Sevier and his Tennessee outlaws attacked at dawn while many were still asleep.  He killed all he could in the town, captured people to sell as slaves, and hauled off so much plunder that it took 200 stolen horses to carry it all back to Tennessee.

After waiting a long time unsuccessfully for a meeting Christian believer June Smith, descendant of Tsali, at Cherokee, NC, the team returned home and celebrated the beginning of Jewish Shabbat (Sabbath).

We have a great team.  Henry Pennington is a rock of Gibraltar and very present help at all times.  Bob Ensign is always alert and filled with tears for the Cherokee people.  Randy Woodley is always well thought and wise in counsel.  Edd Stovall is steady and sure, full of humor and always the first to volunteer to repent for white aggression.  Ada Winn is our Beloved Woman, and Jim Barefoot is our resident, warm, and sure elder.  What a wonderful group with which to pray.  Everyone is contributing in some measure.


Day 9 – October 23, 1999

Today the team headed out early to Wayah Bald overlooking Franklin and the upper Little Tennessee River Valley.  It was cold and windy, so the team did not stay long there in prayer at 5342 feet elevation.

We headed down through Aquone to Andrews where we went to Tatham Gap Road and prayerwalked a mile on this trail over the Snowbird Mountains. Tatham Gap Road was built for the express purpose of bringing Cherokees from Fort Montgomery (a concentration camp) in Robbinsville straight across the mountain to Fort Delaney at Andrews.  It could be considered part of the Trail of Tears.  As the team walked in the same footsteps as some of their own ancestors, the emotions could not be contained.  Wailing and weeping and deep sobs accompanied the prayerwalking down this forgotten dirt road in the mountains.  When we finished the walk, realizing that those Cherokees in 1839 would have never seen their homes again, we interceded, released the anger we felt, repented and forgave.  Then we quoted some lines from Andrew Jackson’s speeches about the Cherokees which were malicious and genocidal and repented for the broken treaties, removing them from the covering a Bible.  (Treaties have caused the Native peoples not to believe the written words of God.)  Andrew Jackson was born on the NC/SC line near Charlotte.

After lunch the team then moved down to Fort Butler at Murphy, NC, to pray. People in Murphy say the Trail of Tears started there because Fort Butler on the hill just above McDonalds at 64/441/23/19 was the rendezvous point for all Cherokees being moved out of the Carolinas. No sanitation, no shelter, cold, wet, herded like animals, the Cherokees’ small children and aged were the first to die.  Birth rates plummeted to zero.  Pregnant women were especially in danger.  Dysentery and parasites were rampant as the US soldiers gave the Cherokees raw corn and undercooked or raw salt pork as rations.   The army rationalized that the more that died in the camps would be less to deal with on the march 
west.  25,000 Cherokees were rounded up.  Of those 1/4 died before arriving in Oklahoma.  Of those who died, 1/2 died in the concentration camps.

These camps have a direct connection with the Jewish holocaust.  This camp model was used for the POW camps on both sides during the American Civil War.  Prussian army observers of the Civil War here in America took these ideas back with them, and when the Third Reich arose under Hitler, Prussian military acumen was used including these Cherokee concentration camp ideas for the Jewish holocaust.

Afterward, the team went to the Mission station where Evan Jones and Jesse Bushyhead brought thousands of Cherokees into the kingdom near Hayesville/ Peachtree, NC.  Jones and Bushyhead eventually went on the Trail of Tears with the Cherokees where they had revival and had fruitful ministry in Oklahoma.

It was a hard and great day of prayer.


Day 10 – October 24, 1999

Today our team went to minister at Cornerstone Christian Center in Waynesville, NC.  Each team member had a part to contribute as we led the service of worship.

After lunch the team debriefed for about 90 minutes and headed home.


CHEROKEE PRAYER INITIATIVE
MIDDLE TOWNS DEBRIEFING 
10/24/99 

1. How has this prayer journey affected the Cherokees and this area? 
2. How has this prayer journey affected me? 
3. What suggestions do you make to improve the next prayer journey?


Jim Barefoot
1.  This prayer journey has been heard by God, who has promised to hear and, “I will answer.”  He promised.  So, God has recorded our effort and will work accordingly. 
2.  This prayer journey has brought me into a greater awareness of the Cherokee history, of my responsibility to confess the sins of my forefathers and, I believe, has broken the power of Satan in the area of spiritual freedom.  Therefore, freedom to love Christ in a new dimension for both Indians and Caucasians. 
3.  It would be hard to improve on this walk.  It might help if two groups could be forwarded so as to get a greater involvement by all participants.  Say, limit of eight to a group and a secondary leader under Gene’s supervision.


Gene Brooks
1.  This journey has dealt a goodly blow to the evil power sources related to blood– blood vengeance.  It has cleared the path more to remove obstacles in the way of revival among the Cherokees.  Progress on voice/Cain/Abel. 
2.  Has taught me to keep my eyes open more to what God is doing around me.  Has taught more about dealing with witchcraft coming against a team– dizziness.  Has taught me to allow others to help and contribute. 
3.  More scouting, more local relationships.


Nancy Cheek
1.  I believe it has opened up this area for the five-fold ministry to come and reach those already here and, like the Jews returning to Israel, the Cherokee people will be coming back to this area, their homeland, to live side by side with other races. 
2.  I believe I have grown in several areas.  Respect for differences has increased and respect for hidden sameness in the Native American has grown with awe as we learned more about ceremony.  
3.  I feel it was really on track with the increase of prayer warriors at home standing in the gap.  May this increase even more.  I hope God will provide more housing like this, cheap and no need to move, so lets really pray for this provision.  And communion each day, right on, let’s continue.


Bob Ensign
1.  Broken spiritual bondages and curses that will allow the Holy Spirit to work in the lives of the people and set them free and heal the curses on the land. 
2.  Has brought me much closer to my roots and to have more understanding of what has happened to the Cherokee of this area. 
3.  Begin on Saturday night and end on a Wednesday or Thursday.  All people together in the house, with integrated levels if two-story, rather than separate levels (like this one), for those not camping.  Less meals eaten out, more simple if do eat out.


Linda Fulmer
1.  One immediate effect– Encouragement to Pastor Jim, Helen, Steve, Tina, and those Cherokee believers from his church.  Communicating the vision to the pastors today was important.  Effects in heavens may not be seen for a while. 
2.  I notice some changes after “identity” prayer last Sunday– in thinking a little more “Native.”  This was unexpected.  Also, some of our prayer led us into issues I have wanted to see healed for a long time– brother against brother, identity, broken treaties, and education. 
3.  Should we try dividing team at least a few days to pray at more sites?


Everett Hamilton
1.  I believe Satan has lost a lot of his authority over the Cherokee nation because of our prayers and repentance. 
2.  I have received a lot of truths about Indians I never knew.  It opened my eyes about how our lands need healing in a lot of areas, also how important it is to pray.  All revelations are not to be shared immediately.  
3.  Being on time for appointments, day off, and manage seven or eight people 


Mary Hamilton
1.  I feel there has been a break in the spirit realm to release God to accomplish His will in healing and releasing the Cherokees to be free to accept Him and worship Him.  I would like to see more return to their land.  (blood, voice, revival) 
2.  I am much more informed on the Cherokees and how they were treated.  My heart’s cry is for them to be healed and returned to the land that was taken from them.  I’m sure I will be more in prayer for them in the future.  I feel so honored to be a part of this. 
3.  Possibly seven days instead of ten, accommodations with more bathrooms to ratio of people, and time to assimilate what is happening.


Kevin LaPlante
1.  It has brought some of the needed acknowledgment and repentance that will begin paving the way for restitution/reconciliation/and the return of the blessing to the land.  And this will lead to revival and spiritual awakening among the Cherokees and other people groups in the area.  Opened a door for Cherokees to return to the land through the cleansing of the land from bloodshed, racial pride, and bringing light back to the land that was overcome from darkness from the sins that were committed here. 
2.  Brought healing from rejection– made me feel whole in a way that I can’t really express except that I identified with parts of who I am that I had both rejected, did not know were there, or was uncertain about expressing.  Networked in a way that I don’t know where it will lead to.  Brought a cleansing through repentance of pride.  Intercession. 
3.  If possible to have more representation from direct descendants although there was some significant members on this team represented.


Fern Noble
1.  From the first time my feet touched the trail of tears, I realized how deep and huge the pool of grief was.  I feel like our prayer at the different sites dipped into this pool of grief and brought the tears, cup by cup, to God our Father– each tear drop being so very important to God.  A new understanding of how to battle worldly sorrow.  Redemptive gift– Trail of Repentance/Cain and Abel/Blood Quantum/Voice issues/Education 
2.  As I watched the different national wounds being touched and healed by the hand of God, I knew that inside I was also being healed.  My own personal life was healed as I was able to own my different ancestral lines.  I felt a peace come upon me as we confronted the education wound.  Another huge wound inside me was healed as we confronted the broken treaties– the voice from the past seem to grow silent. 
3.  More scouting.  Maybe try to extend our team worship time in the morning by adding an extra day or so and less sites per day and less hours in the day.


Henry Pennington
1.  It has started a healing process to the land and the Cherokee people by the repentance and prayers. 
2.  It has brought me to a closer relationship with Father, therefore it will effect my earthly life.  It made  
me have a stronger feeling for my Cherokee heritage. 
3.  No need of improvement noted at this time.


Christy Lynn “Little Possum” Poe
1.  This prayer journey has begun clearing the way for revival.  It has released people from some of the bondage.  It also has brought the cases of our sin before the Lord so that healing can begin.  In a sense, many of the broken treaties are being wiped off the Bible.  (Cherokees have also been encouraged and things have been brought to light by our going into churches and sharing.)  The “airways” are being cleared because God can’t look upon sin and the sin is forgiven. 
2.  I had gained a little bit more understanding before the trip so I understood more.  This time I was able to feel more of the pain, especially on the trail of tears.  It’s like I could hear children asking questions and could feel the hatred of the soldiers which made me angry.  I also learned more about warfare and that prophetic actions are important…it seems like there is more I don’t understand but it’s not time yet.  I also think it’s neat that God put each individual on the team and I was able to see some people’s gifts (somewhat).  Gave me more love for the Cherokees. 
3.  I don’t know.  You did well in dealing out responsibilities and getting the Qualla book.  Also, instructing on warfare, and giving history lessons are good.  Maybe have someone in charge of emails to intercessors.


Henry Redding 
1.  It has went to the root to brotherhood in the family in dealing with Cain and Abel this is where betrayal began along with murder and many other things as fleshly efforts (work of our hands). 
2.  It has taught me there is always more layers of the onion skins around my heart to be revealed and healed.  Also, it has really confirmed some areas of God’s calling, one to this area in some divine bondings.  Taught me to be more vigilant in all we are doing. 
3.  When you cast the vision God has given you, walk in that vision no matter what.  We need the prayer journals to send out earlier.  Our scouting should focus towards bonding local people to leave the unfinished warfare with more.  Increase to twelve days and give off time. 


Ed “Big Sugar” Stovall
1.  Healing and forgiving and a closer walk for me. 
2.  I have come to know my brothers better and understand better of what we, white people, did to the Indians. 
3.  We did fine on this one.  I don’t know if we could do any better.  Don’t back track so much. 


Amanda Trovinger
1.  This prayer expedition has set captives (of every race) free in this area.  I believe the Lord used it to prepare this area for a great “work” He is wanting to do.  Cherokee Nation has been set free to move forward and advance for the Kingdom’s sake. 
2.  I have seen the barbaric cruelty my ancestors (and therefore myself) have inflicted on a race of people that are God’s own.  I experienced some of the shame and had to own up to my participation through their actions.  Because of this, I’ve learned to flow/move into a new area/level of intercession.  I saw God’s grace and Christ’s forgiveness through Ada and Randy and others as they forgave us, white people.  I am so undeserving of that forgiveness.  We deserved death but they spoke life and I could see Jesus in their faces. 
3.  Keep the cook!  I really don’t know.  I know everybody gave it their best and I think we’ll all learn from our own mistakes and that will improve it next time.


Beloved Woman– Ada Winn
1.  Awareness of people in this area that need to be networking together.  There has been a word from the Lord that His plan for this team has been accomplished.  Over different areas, God has already been touching hearts for the Host peoples and we can truly see His awesome handiwork that will bring this harvest in– The favor of the Lord is upon the Native peoples. 
2.  Have become more sensitive to the Lord’s voice and know that He is holding me accountable for a higher level of intercession for both the Cherokees and all peoples of the land.  Learn how to accept honor and being waited on. 
3.  A third van.  This was a wonderful time.  A bit more time to read the books for historical info.  Copy of the map with sites marked.  Prayer list (Henry’s).


Randy Woodley
1.  Time will tell– my hope is it has broken curses and watered for future revival. 
2.  I dredged up sins of racism I would not have admitted to other wise and it allowed me to be freed up.  It showed me how deeply I care for my Cherokee people and also allowed me to appreciate the total plan of brotherhood God intends for this country.  Visiting sites was awesome.  
3.  Personal opinion– Try to hit sites of key issues but not so many sites.  Also– physically/emotionally we need a day off in the middle of everything.  I know Sunday was planned for that, yet it was a very [long] day.  Even a half day to [venture] out or tourist about would be enough of a change to rest our minds/emotion, etc.


This page created November 3, 1999. 
Copyright © 1999-2003 Gene Brooks. 
Last updated February 6, 2003.

SCOTLAND IN THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR

Copyright ©1989 Gene Brooks  Home

INTRODUCTION

The role of Scotland in the Hundred Year’s War goes back into the 1290’s as prejudices developed. A study of the role of Scotland necessarily forces one to narrate the origins and events leading to war in 1337. Scotland was a chess piece, toyed with by the players France and England; and England never failed to drive the Scots, who wanted peace with England, into the arms of the arguing French. The Scots taught the French how to fight the English, and taught the English the value of the longbow.

SCOTLAND AND EDWARD I

When the order of succession ran out in 1290, thirteen people claimed the throne of Scotland, including John Balliol and Robert the Bruce, grandfather of the future king. Edward I’s arbitration was typical of his Justinian attitude. The decision was absolutely correct by order of primogeniture and John Balliol was in no position to refuse to pay homage to Edward I. (Bingham, 41) Edward I made John Balliol king, then oppressed him. “Not satisfied with suzerainty, he was determined to make Scotland his property, his very own. The easiest way to do that was to goad Balliol into rebellion and then confiscate the kingdom of Balliol. This is what Edward deliberately did. The result was, that, far from winning Scotland, Edward converted that nation into a dangerous enemy, and presented France with a serviceable ally.” (Lang, 176) Edward I summoned John time and again to court. Once he sent the sheriff of Northumberland to summon him to London over a bill of a Gascon wine merchant charged to Alexander III! Meanwhile Edward I was called to France and refused to go. The French court declared him contumacious and seized his possessions. (Lang, 176) Edward I denounced his homage to France, and went to Gascony to win his possession back. In 1294 Edward I summoned John Balliol to court in Gascony. Enough was enough. In 1295 John repudiated his allegiance to Edward I with the following words: “Your yourself and others of your realm . . . have . . . inflicted over and over again, by naked force, grievous and intolerable injuries, slights, and wrongs upon us and the inhabitants of our realm and indeed have caused harm beyond measure to the liberties of ourselves and of our kingdom . . . and we desire to assert ourselves against you . . .and so by the present letter we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you.” (Stones, 141,143) He appointed a committee of Twelve Peers to enter into negotiations for a French alliance and marriage between his son Edward to the niece of the French king. (Lang, 177) On October 23, 1295, the auld alliance began as an offensive and defensive alliance against England. (Nicholson, 47) “The result of Edward’s Scottish policy now was, that he had driven Scotland into the arms of France.” (Lang, 177) In 1296 Edward I sacked Berwick, Scotland’s most important port and massacred the inhabitants. On July 11, 1296, John Balliol surrendered the kingdom and was humiliatingly stripped of his royal insignia at Brechen. Edward I took the Scot regalia and the Stone of Scone. (Bingham, 42) King John I testified: “In evil counsel we have defied our lord the king of England, [and] we acting under no constraint, and of our own free will, have surrendered to him the land of Scotland and all its people, with the homages of all of them.” (Stones, 147,149)

“The humiliation of foreign conquest, the outrage of massacre at Berwick[,] and the degradation of Scottish sovereignty . . . combined to inspire a spirit of resistance as indomitable as it was unexpected.” (Bingham, 43)

WAR FOR SCOT INDEPENDENCE

After the martyrdom of Wallace, or Waleys, as his name originated, (Smith, 197) Robert the Bruce rose to become king of Scotland. In 1309 he held the first Parliament at St. Andrews in which he got the loyalty of the nobility and clergy. Moving on the English forces in the Lowlands, he captured Perth, Dumfries, Linlithgow, Roxburgh, and Edinburgh. By spring of 1314, Stirling alone was in English hands. Edward II led 20,000 men to relieve Stirling Castle but met Bruce at Bannockburn. (Bingham, 45-46) Because of continuing Scot raids into England, Pope John XXII in June 1318 excommunicated Robert I Bruce and placed an interdict on Scotland. This action was the reason for the apologia (Nicholson, 99) in 1320, when the nobles and prelates drafted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, whose recognition they needed. In this Scottish Declaration of Independence, the nobles and prelates swore: “for so long as a hundred men remain alive we will never in any way be bowed beneath the yoke of English domination; for it is not for glory, riches, or honors that we fight, but for freedom alone, that which no man of worth yields up, save with his life.” (Nicholson, 100) In the autumn of 1328, the pope lifted the excommunication of Bruce and the interdict on Scotland, recognizing Bruce as king of the Scots in light of the recently concluded Treaty of Northampton. (Bingham, 47).

SCOTLAND AS POLITICAL CHESS PIECE:

THE SHAMEFUL NORTHAMPTON TREATY

Edward II claimed he adhered to the current truce, but he allowed English privateers to continue to attack Flemish vessels trading with Scotland. For example, privateers seized the Flemish vessel Pelarym worth 2,000 pounds. All the Scots on board, including women and pilgrims, were massacred. Bruce demanded justice in vain. Consequently, Robert I authorized envoys to negotiate with France for a renewed alliance which was concluded April 26, 1326, at Corbeil. French would in war and peace aid and advise the Scots against the English. The Scots were bound to make war on England in the event of an Anglo-French war. In 1327, three Scot battalions invaded northern England and defeated the English at Stanhope and Weardale. Almost simultaneously, the Scots invaded Ulster in Ireland. As soon as Randolph, Douglas, and Donald of Mar left northern England, Bruce entered, besieging Norham and declaring he would annex Northumberland and parcel it out to his followers. Isabella and Earl Mortimer of March could not raise a force on such short notice and agreed to make peace on Bruce’s terms. The Treaty of Northampton (1328) was favorable to Scotland in that Scotland was treated as an equal with England. Isabel and her lover Mortimer in the name of young Edward III “renounced all pretensions to sovereignty” to Scotland; and Joanna, sister of Edward III, was married to David, son of Robert Bruce. (Scott, 87) In the quitclaim of Edward III of 1328, one sees what the treaty of Northampton meant: The Scottish borders set by Alexander III “shall remain for ever to the eminent prince Lord Robert, by the grace of God the illustrious king of Scots, our ally and dearest friend, and to his heirs and successors, divided in all things from the realm of England, entire, free, and quit, without any subjection, servitude, claim, or demand.” (Stones, 325)

THE SCHEMES OF EDWARD III

“Historians tend to say that in 1331 the kings of France and England were far from thought of war. They suggest that during the next six years, while Philip was preoccupied with dreams of a Crusade, and while Edward pursued an irrelevant campaign against the Scots, the situation slipped, through a difference over feudal rights and duties in Aquitaine until there was no going back. Such a view is incomplete. . . . Fighting was both a favorite sport and also a normal means of livelihood, the accepted way to fortune and fame. To keep his throne, Edward [III] had to have the goodwill of his vassals. . . . He must now weld them together in some foreign enterprise with good prospects of external gain. There was plenty at hand for all in the wealth of France. To make safe the crown of England, he had already decided to beggar France.” (Packe, 65) Edward III must make the Scots look like the aggressor and keep Philip VI unaware of the events. Edward III wanted to attack France, but the treaty of Northampton had made the Scots a power he had to crush first.

Edward knew if Philip VI suspicioned an attack on the Scots, he would rush to help his Auld Alliance friend. (Packe, 65) If Edward broke the Northampton treaty, he would have to refund to the pope the 20,000 pounds paid by the Scots, and the French pope would have forced the collection. If Philip suspected Edward III breaking the treaty, he would certainly confiscate Aquitaine. Edward had been playing marriage games with Philip VI who invited him to go on crusade. Edward enthusiastically accepted but asked if he might wait three years while he had an expedition to Ireland. Ireland was merely pretext. Edward never meant to take an expedition to Ireland. (Nicholson, 66) Part of the Northampton treaty provided that English lords disinherited of Scot lands given them by Edward I would get them back. Robert Bruce did not fulfill this part of the treaty before his death. Edward III loudly denounced Balliol, and prohibited his crossing English lands, (but he did secretly fit them out in ships. (Nicholson, 125)

Accordingly, the English lords under Edward Balliol son of John Balliol invaded Scotland with 3000 men and archers and took the throne on September 24, 1332, from the four year old David II. Edward Balliol acknowledged Edward III as superior, surrendered Berwick, and promised to fight for Edward III. The Scots chased him out of the country in his bedclothes, riding bareback with only one foot booted. (Scott, 91-94) The Scots had crossed the Border! They were the breakers of the truce!

Parliament begged Edward III to divert his Ireland expedition money to defend against those barbaric Scots, which he graciously did. (Nicholson, 66) Scotland had asserted her independence; therefore, Edward III declared war on the rebellion and supported Balliol. (Scott, 95) “Edward once more overran the kingdom, seized and garrisoned castles, extorted from Edward Balliol, the nominal king, the complete cession of a great part of the southern districts, and exercised complete authority, as over a conquered country.” (Scott, 96)

At Dupplin Moor August 11, 1332, the Scots had caroused the night before. The disorganized Scot attack and the English arrow made the Scot lion tuck its tail. At the Battle of Halidon Hill, July 19,1333, the positions of Bannockburn were reversed and so was the result. The next morning, Berwick fell to Edward III.(Nicholson, 126,128) Edward III had neutralized Scotland. Now he could attack France. Philip VI invited David II and Queen Joan to seek refuge in France, and they arrived May 14, 1334, and stayed in the Chateau Gaillard on the Seine. Philip VI, planning his Crusade in which he was the commander, was receiving from a special tenth tax from the clergy to prepare a navy for the Crusade, and he invited Edward III a second time. Edward’s envoys said Edward would go on crusade when concessions are made with regard to Aquitaine, and Philip was about to make concessions, when he heard his guest, David II and his small court complaining about English usurpations.(Packe, 72)

Philip of Valois could not abandon Scotland. In case of an Anglo-French conflict, Scotland could embarrass England at home.(Perroy, 89) Edward’s envoys had been happy with the crusade-Aquitaine agreement when Philip VI summoned them from bed to say there would be no agreement in Aquitaine without peace in Scotland.(Packe, 72)

Edward III must get out of Scotland; otherwise, Philip VI would confiscate Aquitaine and send help to King David II with men, money, and supplies.(Perroy, 89) “The deal was off. The Scottish war resumed.”(Packe, 72) With the news of possible French aid in the summer of 1334, Randolph and Steward took the offensive, running the English into Berwick Castle.(Nicholson, 130) Philip VI thought about offering to mediate between England and Scotland; he at least wanted peace in Scotland before he went on crusade, but he realized such mediation would favor the Scots and thus cause a war.

Benedict XII stepped in November 1335, and his legates concluded a six months truce. Pope said there would be no crusades until there was peace in Europe. Philip VI’s tenth from the churches was stopped by pope (Perroy, 90-91) because he had used some of the money for “profane purposes.”(Packe, 74) In 1335 Edward III ravaged East Lothian to the point that the period was called the Burned Candlemas because so many towns were burned. Scots would not fight a pitched battle, skirmished much, removed provisions of use to Edward III.

Edward retreated after much loss. (Scott, 103) With the hope for a crusade gone, Philip had no reason to get along with Edward. In February 1336 Edward III demanded the return of Gascony and began to look for anti-France alliances. When Edward moved again on Scotland, Philip raised his banner and marched into Aquitaine. (Packe, 73-74) He raided Perth with twenty-seven French galleys and moved the Crusade fleet from Marseilles to Normandy to look as if it would be used in Scotland’s favor. Edward III abandoned his campaign on the Scots to get ready for a general war with France.(Perroy. 90-91)

The Scots were on their last leg. England was ready to invade again. Philip’s rash action in the spring of 1336 hurried England and France to war. Although the fleet moved to Normandy, only small help was really sent, holding Scotland out for a short time. But Edward III had decided that war was inevitable, and he forgot Scotland to prepare for war with France. In September 1336, Parliament at Nottingham denounced the King of France’s movements in Scotland and voted Edward III money. “Then the administration left the northern provinces, where it had stayed for four years, returned to Westminster, zealously began military preparations, put the coasts in a state of alert, sent war material to Aquitaine, and concentrated troops and a fleet on the shores of the English Channel.” (Perroy, 91)

Slowness in getting prepared for war and getting allies led Benedict XII to reopen negotiations. Edward III said he would not negotiate unless Philip VI restored Aquitaine and abandoned the Scot alliance as a preliminary. (Perroy, 102)

SECOND WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

Accordingly, he renewed his truce with France to include Scotland until 1354.(Lang, 258) In July 1354 at Newcastle, the Scots agreed to pay 90,000 merks sterling for King David As Edward III became involved with France, he slackened in Scotland and the Scots gained ground. The Scots sent an embassy to obtain money and assistance from the French and used it to retake castles and towns.(Scott, 100) The Scots under Black Agnes held the castle at Dunbar against the English under Salisbury. In June 1338 Salisbury withdrew under orders of Edward III who was busy with France.

With things better in Scotland the nobles brought back King David II and Queen Joanna in 1341.(Scott, 101) By May 1342, Perth, Edinburgh, Roxburgh, and Stirling had fallen to the Scots.(Lang,254) A truce between France and England included Scotland to last February 1343 to Michaelmas 1346 (Lang, 256), but the Westminster Parliament did not trust the Scots, stating in June 1344, “the Scots say openly that whenever the said Adversary [the king of France] lets them know that he does not wish to keep the truces they will not keep them either, but will raid upon England and accomplish as much damage as they can.” (Nicholson, 144) The French king encouraged David II to renew the war with England while Edward III was at Calais.

David mustered at Perth on October 5, 1346, 2,000 men-at-arms, 20,000 Hobelers or light horsemen, and 10,000 footmen and archers (Lang, 257) and entered England on the West frontier and marched east toward Durham, “harassing and wasting the land with great severity.”(Scott, 101-102) The Scots took the castle of Liddel, plundered Lanercost, and “went about burning royally.” (Lang, 257) They boasted no one could oppose them. The English rumored that David would soon see London. He would. The Archbishop of York William La Zouche (Nicholson, 146) and the northern lords surprised the Scots at Neville’s Cross near Durham on October 17, 1346.

“Just before the battle, one of David’s most skilful soldiers, Sir John de Grahame, came to him and asked that he might have a number of horse-soldiers to attack the English archers, as Bruce had arranged at Bannockburn. David would not listen to him, and it turned out exactly as Grahame expected.”(Brown, 185) English arrows made havoc in the Scot army, one wounding David II badly in the face. John Coupland captured David but not before the king had knocked out Coupland’s two front teeth. (Nicholson, 146) He was imprisoned in the Tower after being paraded in the streets of London. (Scott, 101-102) It would take the Scots over a century to retake what was lost at Neville’s Cross. (Nicholson, 148)

Meanwhile Edward III took Calais, but needed money’s ransom. Scotland and England were moving toward peace, but France interfered. Forty thousand moutons d’or arrived from the continent for Scotland to raid and capture Berwick. Berwick was soon Scotland’s but not for long. Edward III recaptured it in January 1356. (Lang, 259)

SCOTLAND’S MILITARY CONTRIBUTION TO ENGLISH ARMS

At Falkirk Edward I “had also the celebrated archers of England, each of whom was said to carry twelve Scotsmen’s lives under his girdle; because every archer had twelve arrows stuck in his belt.” (Scott, 53)

23 June 1314-Bannockburn’s effects, Scotland became independent under Robert the Bruce. (Scott, 85) In the 1330’s invasions of Scotland, the English knights began dismounting for combat. In superiority to the continent, English used the hated infantry, the pikemen, the Welsh knifemen, and the archers who were not very accurate but fired three shots to a Genoese crossbowman’s one. (Perroy, 97) Halidon Hill was two miles from Berwick. Archers of England made the day. The Scots were fully exposed on the side of the hill.(Scott, 95)

TO FRENCH ARMS: FRENCH IN SCOTLAND

In 1384, an eight month’s truce was concluded between England and France at Boulogne. The Scots had an option to participate, and French envoys arrived in Edinburgh with news of the truce in mid-April 1384. At the same time, however, a group of French knight adventurers arrived in Scotland to raid northern England.

The young knights of Scotland listened to them rather than the truce bearers. The young Scots and French adventurers met at Dalkeith and rode to meet 15,000 Scots and retaliated on the Percy’s and Mowbray’s lands for their recent raid to Edinburgh. The French truce men knew nothing of the raid and took news of peace to France, but Douglas said to his French adventurers: “You know what we can do. Send us 1,000 men-at-arms and you will see marvels.”(Lang, 278) When the truce expired in 1385, the French, hard pressed in their country, sent an army to Scotland to make war on the English. 1,000 knights and squires in full armor with a total of 5,000-6,000 men commanded by Jean de Vienne, High Admiral of France. They brought 1200 suits of armor (Scott, 104-105) with 50,000 gold francs for king and nobles.(Lang, 278)

Vienne said to the Scots: “You have always said that if you had some hundreds of French men-at-arms to help you, you would give battle to the English. Now here we are to give you aid. Let us give battle.”(Scott, 105) Richard II was moving north with an army. Scots had run to the hills and woods and driven off their cattle. Thick towers would not burn and peasant huts could be easily rebuilt. Vienne asked Douglas, “But what will you do with your army if you do not fight and how will your people endure the distress and famine and plunder, which must be the consequences of the invasion?” Archibald, Earl of Douglas answered: “You shall see that our army will not lie idle; and as for our Scottish people, they will endure pillage; they will endure famine, and every other extremity of War, but they will not endure an English master.”

King of the Scots gave permission for an invasion of northern England of French and Scots, numbering 30,000 men and 2,000 lancers.(Lang, 279) The English army numbering 7,000 men-at-arms and 60,000 archers under Lancaster entered on the eastern frontier moving toward Aberdeen, finding no subsistence from the land, laying waste villages, finding little nothing to destroy. The French were delighted at the prospect of pitched battle. The Scots wanted no such risk and withdrew. The French were of little service to a people committed to avoiding battle.(Lang, 279) The French were dissatisfied in the poor country with no forage and “no kindness or good will” (Scott, 106) from the Scots. The French barons came expecting “fair houses, halls adorned, castles, and good soft beds.”(Lang, 278)

The Scots found the French more expense to them than use. The Scots grumbled: “Who the devil needs them? Can we not fight our own battles? They will pillage worse than the English.” (Lang, 278) The French wanted too much and Scotland was too poor to provide. The French “insulted the inhabitants, and pillaged the country wherever they durst.”(Scott, 106) The Scots had nothing to do with the French. A ten flourin horse cost a Frenchman sixty with no harness. French foragers were beaten and killed by farmers. One hundred Frenchmen died in one month.(Lang, 279) France had to pay the expenses they had incurred before they could leave the country. “The French knights, who had hoped to acquire wealth and fame, returned in a very bad humour from a kingdom where the people were so wild and uncivilised and the country so mountainous and poor.”(Scott, 107) Vienne remarked: “Scotland is a very poor country and the people generally envious of the good fortunes of others and suspicious of losing anything themselves.

[The French knights] were by no means pleased at the poverty they had to encounter.”(Cameron, 13) The effect, however, was not in the French recognition that Scotland was a poor land, but was in the military strategems they learned while romping through northern England with the pikemen. The Scots fought by avoiding general battles, accepting the enemy’s destruction of their land, hurting him by getting supplies out of his reach, and fighting a guerrilla war.

At Berwick in March of 1296 the Scots learned to avoid a pitched battle with the English. From thence in rapid succession there fell the fortresses at Dunbar, Roxburgh, Jedburgh, Dumbarton, Edinburgh, Stirling, and Perth. Strikingly similar to the Scots, the French after 1385 adopted “a sensible policy of avoiding pitched battles, . . . refused to be provoked by acts of devastation, and attacked their enemy by the methods of guerilla warfare.”(Ashley, 133)Another historian said, “The conquest of France was a wild and mischievous dream. . . . At last, the enemy having learned to avoid battles in the open field, it degenerated into a series of aimless raids.”(Smith, 220-221) From whom did the French learn the art of battle avoidance except from their partners in the Auld Alliance?

SCOTS IN FRANCE

“For centuries no English king invaded France, as Henry V admitted, but he found a Scot in his path. From Bauge to the field of Laffen (1748), leaders of English or Hanoverian royal lines were to fall or fly, like Clarence and the Butcher Cumberland, before Scots in French service.”(Lang, 177) In 1420 Dauphin Charles VII requested a Scot force in France. The dauphin’s country was in danger of being conquered by Henry V. John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, and Archibald, eldest son of the Earl of Douglas (Lang, 293) led 6,000-7,000 Scots to victories in France over England.

Bauge, in 1421, was Scotland’s greatest victory on French soil. The Duke of Clarence, brother of Henry V, attacked the Scots while they were playing football. Stewart of Railston held the bridge, but Clarence pushed him back. However, Clarence fell in the action with 2,000 other Englishmen. The Franco-Scot loss was small. The battle was over before the English archers could go to work. “The victory had no great strategic results, but it was the first turn in the tide, and greatly encouraged loyal Frenchmen.”(Lang, 294) The French king made Buchan Constable of France and Count of Aubigny.

For distinguished service on the field, the Earl of Douglas was made Duke of Touraine. “To organize more effective campaigns Charles relied on foreign mercenaries, notably the formidable Scots sent him by the regent Albany.” (Perroy, 263) However, the Scot troops were not liked in France. Although reports of Scots plundering French peasants were rarely reported,(Lang, 279) and despite victories, the French complained of the Scot presence.(Lang, 295) Duke Bedford, formerly the Regent for Henry VI, used to be ridiculed by the Earl of Douglas who called him “John with the leaden sword.” On 17 August, 1424, Duke Bedford sent a message that he intended to come and dine and drink with Earl of Douglas at Verneuil. Everyone knew this meant battle-time. The Battle was typical: English arrows and French arguments. The Scots wanted to stand their ground and await an attack. The French said they would advance if the Scots did or not.

The Scots cooperated, and the Franco-Scot army was routed. Douglas and Buchan were killed. The remains of the Scot forces were adopted by King Charles as his lifeguard and his successors continued this practice many years.(Scott, 116) In 1428 Bedford besieged Orleans, and the Scots were held up with the French in the fortress. In February 1429, Stewart Derneley sallied from Orleans to intercept a convoy of provisions going from Paris to the English. He ran into the English in laager, defended behind their encircled wagons, and Derneley and his brother fell. This battle was called the Battle of the Herrings at Rouvray. (Lang, 307)

One young lady knew the battle’s outcome before it was over. Baudricourt, Governor of Vaucouleurs, took her to the Dauphin. Jeanne d’Arc explained to him one of his secrets and recited a prayer he had made alone in his chamber. Immediately she took control, and the Franco-Scots under Arc “drove the English from Orleans, took Jargeau, routed Talbot and Fastoff at Pathay, crowned Charles at Rheims–whither the Scottish archers led the march–and would have taken Paris, but that they were betrayed by the king himself and his ministers. The Scots, under Sir Hugh Kennedy, were with Jeanne in her last victory at Lagny. . . . Alone of the peoples with whom she was concerned, the Scots never deserted, sold, betrayed, or condemned La Pucelle.”(Lang, 308) Scotland’s role in the Hundred Year’s War was one of political maneuvering. Shunned by England, she turned to France and fought valiantly for her, teaching the French how to fight and allowing the English to practice their archery on them. 
  
 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961.

Bingham, Caroline. The Kings And Queens of Scotland. New York: Dorset Press, 1976.

Brown, P. Hume. A Short History of Scotland. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, year?

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Copyright 1997-2003 Gene Brooks. 
Page created February 1, 1998.
Updated November 13, 2003.